Writing Rubrics and Checklists
Narrative Analytic Rubric
Writing Portfolio Collection Rubric
Business Letter Rubric
Writing Evaluation Rubric
Research Papers Rubric
Writing Assessment Rubric
Student Writing Assessment Checklist
Observing and Reporting: Expository Writing Rubric
Painting a Picture with Words: Descriptive Writing Rubric
Telling a Story: Narrative Writing Rubric
Daily Journal Writing Rubric
Constructing and Argument: Persuasive Writing Rubric
Journal Checklist
Compare / Contrast Essay Checklist
Body Paragraph Evaluation Checklist
Technical Writing Rubric
Written Report Checklist
Biography Rubric

Narrative Analytic Rubric

General Competence Some evidence of achievement. Developing writer. Adequate achievement. Competent writer. Commendable achievement and writer. Exceptional achievement. Exceptional writer.
Focus/ Organization Topic may not be clear. Few events are logical. May be no attempt to limit topic. Much digression or over-elaborations with significant interference with reader understanding Topic clear. Most events are logical. Some digression causing slight reader confusion. Most transitions are logical, but may be repetitive. Clear sense of beginning and end. Topic clear. Events are logical. Possible slight digression without significant distraction to reader. Most transitions smooth and logical. Clear sense of beginning and end. Topic clear. Events are logical. No digressions. Varied transitions. Transitions smooth and logical. Clear sense of beginning and end.
Development Minimal development of elements of narrative. Minimal or no detail. Detail used is uneven and unclear. Simple sentence patterns. Very simplistic vocabulary. Detail may be irrelevant or confusing Most elements of narrative are present. Some elaboration may be less even and lack depth. Some details are vivid or specific, although one or two may lack direct relevance. Supporting details begin to be more specific than general statements. Elements of narrative are well-elaborated. Most elaboration is even and appropriate. Some varied sentence patterns used. Vocabulary appropriate. Some details are more specific than general statements. A few details may lack specificity. Elements of narrative are well-elaborated (plot, setting, characters). Elaboration even and appropriate. Sentence patterns varied and complex. Sentence patterns varied and complex. Diction appropriate. Detail vivid and specific.
Mechanics Many minor errors. Many major errors. Many errors cause reader confusion and interference with understanding. A few minor errors. One or two major errors. No more than five combined errors (major and minor). Errors do not cause significant reader confusion. A few minor errors. One or two major errors. No more than five combined errors (major and minor). Errors do not cause significant reader confusion. One or two minor errors. No major errors.

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Writing Portfolio Collection Rubric

Topics, ideas, or plans may often not be clear. Use of supporting details or events may not be logical. May be digressions or overelaborations that significantly Interfere with reader understanding. Typically little sense of beginnings or endings. Few transitions. Minimal use of supportive detail; detail may be irrelevant or confusing. Many mechanical errors that interfere with understanding Controlling topics, ideas, or overall plans always present but do not always focus the writing. Endings may sometimes be awkward or abrupt. Transitions are typically logical but may on occasion lack depth and/or direct relevance. Generally well organized according to definite plans. Topics or ideas generally clear. Typically clear beginnings and ends. Most transitions smooth and logical. Details generally varied and vivid; metaphors may sometimes be appropriate. Most details consistent with overall plans. In each composition, at least one point is fully elaborated (6-9 clauses.) Mechanical errors do not confuse reader, but in each composition there may be several minor errors or one or two major errors. Unified, focused compositions. Topic or ideas consistently clear, no digressions. Typically clear beginnings, middles, and ends. Transitions typically smooth and logical. Details varied and vivid. Details consistently support logic or idea. Points are often extensively elaborated (8-10 clauses). Mechanical errors are minor and infrequent.

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Business Letter Rubric

No concept of business letter form. Lack of necessary information. Ideas unorganized. Sentence fragments and run-ons; few complete sentences. Language inappropriate to business letter. Frequent usage errors (such as: agreement, pronoun misuse, tense). Incorrect use of capitalization, punctuation, and spelling conventions. Little concept of business letter form. Lack of necessary information. Ideas not sufficiently organized and/or communicated. Sentence fragments and run-ons; few complete sentences. Language inappropriate to business letter. Frequent usage errors (such as: agreement, pronoun misuse, tense). Incorrect use of capitalization, punctuation, and spelling conventions Business letter form maintained. Necessary information presented. Ideas sufficiently organized and communicated. Minimal number of sentence fragments or run-ons. Appropriate business letter language. Only occasional usage errors (such as agreement, pronoun misuse, tense). Business letter form maintained. Necessary information presented. Ideas well organized and communicated clearly and concisely. Command of sentence structure. Excellent business letter language. Correct usage. Correct capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.

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Writing Evaluation Rubric

Writing Process * Little evidence of plan/focus.
* Little evidence of revision.
* Little attempt at editing.
* Some evidence of plan/focus.
* Some evidence of revision.
* Some attempt at editing.
* Much evidence of plan/focus.
* Much evidence of revision.
* Much attempt at editing
* Plan improves overall quality of work.
* Revisions improve overall quality of work.
* Effective editing
Storyline-Development of Focus/ Theme * Many ideas do not relate to theme.
* Details are missing or lacking direction.
* Topic is insufficiently developed.
* Develops ideas that usually relate to the focus/theme.
* Events are covered with some detail.
* Deals with the topic in an ordinary and functional fashion.
* Develops ideas so that they relate to the focus/theme.
* Events are covered with sufficient detail.
* Deals with the topic in an interesting and creative fashion.
* Develops ideas clearly relating to the focus/theme.
* Events are covered with exceptional detail.
* Deals with the topic in a unique and creative fashion.
Organization * Ineffective opening doesn't catch the reader's interest.
* Sequence of events is confusing.
* Transitions are unclear.
* Has some sense of conclusions.
* Beginning to use paragraphs.
* Acceptable opening attempts to catch the reader's interest.
* Follows some sequence of events.
* Some transitions exist between events.
* Has a conclusion.
* Occasionally uses paragraphs correctly.
* Effective opening catches the reader’s interest.
* Follows a sequence of events.
* Transitions exist between events.
* Has an effective conclusion.
* Generally uses paragraphs correctly.
* Exceptional opening catches the reader's interest.
* Clearly follows sequence of events.
* Exceptional transitions between events.
* Has an exceptional conclusion.
* Consistently uses paragraphs correctly
Word Choices/ Styles * Attempts to include appropriate vocabulary.
* Little evidence of imagery and mood.
* Uses simple and/or run-on sentence structures repeatedly.
* Occasionally uses descriptive/ appropriate vocabulary.
* Attempts to create imagery and mood.
* Uses well developed simple and compound sentence structures.
* Generally uses descriptive/ appropriate vocabulary.
* Creates imagery and mood.
* Attempts to use complex sentence structures.
* Consistently uses descriptive/ appropriate vocabulary.
* Creates imagery and mood in a variety of ways.
* Uses complex sentence structures.
Mechanics/ Grammar/ Word Usage (verb tense, subject/verb, noun/ pronoun, agreement, etc.) * Many errors in capitalization
* Many errors/omissions in punctuation.
* Word usage is unclear and inaccurate
* Spells commonly used words incorrectly.
* Errors in capitalization don't affect readability. * Errors in punctuation don't affect readability. * Few errors in work usage
* Spells commonly used words correctly.
* Generally uses correct capitalization. * Consistently uses correct punctuation.
* Word usage is generally clear and accurate.
* Spells many difficult words accurately.
* Consistently uses correct capitalization
* Consistently uses correct punctuation.
* Word usage is consistently clear and concise
* Superior spelling.

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Research Papers Rubric

* Limited awareness of audience and/or purpose
* Minimal idea development, limited and/or unrelated details
* Few references
* Random or weak organization
* Incorrect or lack of topic and/or transition sentences.
* Incorrect and/or ineffective wording and/or sentence structure
* Errors in grammar and format (e.g., spelling, punctuation, capitalization, headings)
* An attempt to establish and maintain purpose and communicate with the audience
* Unelaborated idea development; unelaborated and/or repetitious details
* Some references
* Lapses in focus and/or coherence
* Simplistic and/or awkward sentence structure
* Simplistic and/or imprecise language.
* Some errors in grammar and/or format that do not interfere with communication
* Focused on a purpose; evidence of voice and/or suitable tone
* Depth of idea development supported by elaborated, relevant details
* Use of references indicate ample research
* Logical organization
* Controlled and varied sentence structure
* Acceptable, effective language
* Few errors in grammar or format relative to length and complexity
* Establishes and maintains clear focus; evidence of distinctive voice and/or appropriate tone
* Depth and complexity of ideas supported by rich, engaging, and or pertinent details; evidence of analysis, reflection and insight.
* Use of references indicate substantial research
* Careful and/or suitable organization
* Variety of sentence structure and length
* Precise and/or rich language
* Control of surface features

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Writing Assessment Rubric

* Demonstrates awareness of audience and task
*Establishes and maintains a clear purpose
* Sustains a single point of view
* Exhibits clarity of ideas
Confused Focus Vague focus Clear focus Sharp, distinct focus
* Information and details are specific to topic
* Information and details are relevant to focus
* Ideas are fully developed
Superficial content Content limited to a listing, repetition or mere sequence of ideas Specific and illustrative content Substantial, and illustrative content; sophisticated ideas that are particularly well developed
* Logical order or sequence is maintained
* Paragraphs deal with one subject
* Logical transitions are made within sentences and between paragraphs
* Introduction and conclusion are evident
Confused organization Inconsistent organization Logical and appropriate organization Obviously controlled and/or subtle organization
* Precise language
* Effective word choice
* Voice, tone, originality of language
* Variety of sentence structures, types, and lengths
Lack of sentence and word choice variety Limited sentence variety and word choice Precision and variety in sentence structure and work choice Writer’s voice apparent in tone, sentence structure, and word choice
* Mechanics, spelling,
* capitalization, punctuation
* Usage (eg., pronoun references, subject-verb agreement)
* Sentence completeness
Mechanical and usage errors that seriously interfere with the writer's purpose Repeated weaknesses in mechanics and usage Some mechanical and usage errors Few mechanical and usage errors

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Student Writing Assessment Checklist

Content Are the details specific and supportive of the topic?

Are the ideas fully developed?

Does the information support the topic and focus on the theme?

Focus Was there a specific audience?

Were all the ideas clear?

Does the writing sustain a single point of view?

Organization Is there a definite sequence?

Does each paragraph deal with one another?

Does logical sentence order and do transitions exist between paragraphs or ideas?

Are the introductions and conclusions clear?

Style Is the word choice effective and appropriate?

Does the structure vary?

Conventions Are spelling, punctuation and capitalization correct?

Is the usage correct?

Are all sentences complete?


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Observing and Reporting: Expository Writing Rubric

Expository writing is meant to inform first—but often to entertain as well. The skillful expository writer draws on information form his or her own experience, and from other sources, too—books, films, interviews, etc.—integrating, synthesizing and making connections that might not be apparent to everyone, and then reshaping the whole to give it meaning and relevance for a particular audience. Thus, an expository essay on the life of the sea slug written for curious first graders will be transformed totally when reworked into an essay for experienced marine biologists.

From the most successful expository writing, the reader learns something new and has no trouble paying attention. Basic information (the who, what, when, where, why or how of the subject) is enlivened by fitting examples or anecdotes. The writer shows enough knowledge of the topic to choose information in an order that makes it both knowledgeable and confident. This encourages a kind of trust on the part of the reader, who feels in good hands taking the writer’s word of how things are.

Idea development impedes progress. Student needs a great deal of assistance. Misses even high points. Baffling/befogging information. Repetition to fill space. Stays on the surface. Frugal development. Restricted flow of information. Trivia overload. Leaves reader in the dark. Limited knowledge of topic. Details questionable/missing. Unsupported statements. Meager. Skimpy. Flimsy. Shallow. Adequate achievement. Competent writer. Solid and trustworthy, but general. Misses the nuances. Competently presented. Leaves reader hungry for juicy tidbits. Not fully sifted--some sand with the pearls. Leaves some questions for another day. Hits the high points. Development sparing to modest. Overview. Matter-of-fact. Doesn't dig. Ground-level perspective. Functionally informative. Clear, but simple. Reaffirms what reader know/suspected. Garden-variety information. Answers basic questions. Typical textbook. Commendable achievement. Commendable writer. Ferrets out the curious, the remarkable, the little known. Renders the mysterious familiar. Bursting with details. Bits of the surprising, the unexpected. Takes the reader by the hand. A well of good information. Creative examples. Tells enough, tells what matters. An insider's perspective. Anticipates reader's questions. Dots the i's, crosses the t's with flair. Sweeps away the cobwebs. Keeps it lively. Abundant detail. Beyond Obvious. Exceptional achievement. Exceptional writer.

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Painting a Picture with Words: Descriptive Writing Rubric

Apprentice Basic Learned Exemplary
Unable to begin. The paint is dry and the paintbrush is broken. Details blurry or lost. Paints outside the lines. Insubstantial. Obfuscated. Seen through the fog. Abstract. Bodiless. Misses even the obvious. Out of focus. Faint, colorless. Holes in the canvas. Nebulous. Unanswered questions. Reader struggles for clues. Imprecise. Feeble. Clouded. Fuzzy. Misty. Adequate achievement. Competent writer. The quick once-over. Broad brushstrokes--sweeping details. Hints at critical details. Never gets too close. A light sketch. Shows the man in the coat--but not the tarnish on the buttons. Coming into focus. General. Panoramic. Mix of critical and trivial. Just out of reach. The big picture. Generic. Partly in shadow. Partly illuminated. Notices the obvious. Readily foretold. Commendable achievement. Commendable writer. Tangible--reach and touch it. Etched with sure strokes. Seen through a discerning eye. Irrefutable. Lives and breathes. Fine brush strokes. Doesn't miss a trick. What matters most. Distinct. Attentive to telling details. Captures the quintessential. True to the original. Graphic. "You had to be there" moments. Precise. Selective. In focus. Notices everything.

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Telling a Story: Narrative Writing Rubric

Unable to begin a story. Has trouble getting beyond the pre-writing phase of the writing process. No "glue" to hold it all together. No real storyline yet. Details wander in search of a plot. Significant intermingles with trivial. Many unanswered questions. Conflict or question not defined yet. Little or no sense of time or place. No sense of closure. No real lead to set up what follows. Tough to stage. Characters do not think or feel yet. Reader asks, "Why are you telling me this?" Doesn't go anywhere. Random sequencing. Not much happens. List of events. Familiar plotline. Reader can foretell events. Reader craves embellishment. Link to conflict sometimes fuzzy. Pithy, telling events mix non-essentials. Characters live and breathe, but lack depth. Skeletal outline. A beginning of sorts. Minimal foreshadowing. Some important questions answered. Barebones sketch. Evolving sense of plot. Emerging sense of time and place. Reaches closure. Plot unfolds logically, but mechanically. Graceful ending lays the conflict to rest. Reader wonders what will happen. A tale you can retell. Events foreshadow one another. A lead sets up the story. Clear sense of time and place. Conflict resolution, change discovery. Well-developed plot with depth. Intricate framework. Reader gains something from the telling. Characters who learn or grow. Strategic, purposeful sequence. Events matter. Notable turning point.

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Daily Journal Writing Rubric

Could not or would not write anything on the paper. Needs substantial help to complete the task. Unable or unwilling to write own sentences. Copies dictated sentences to own paper. Needs help with writing or spelling words. Completes the task, but may need prompts to complete the task. Works independently. Free writes continuously. Develops thoughts and ideas while expanding on the topic of the day.

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Constructing and Argument: Persuasive Writing Rubric

In persuasive writing, the writer crafts an argument, using a combination of logic, wit, winning rhetoric, and skillfully presented evidence. The purpose is to influence the readers’ thinking, and sometimes to change the reader's mind about something or prompt some action.

Constructing a sound argument, the sort that can make a believer even out off a skeptic, demands both rational thought and creative presentation of ideas. First, the writer must sift and weigh all the available information (including what comes from experience), separate out what is inconsequential or insupportable or misleading, and use what remains to build a defensible position. The writing must then make that position crystal clear and defend it with grace and gusto, marshalling the best evidence at hand and sometimes, if it’s useful, exposing the weakness of opposing views.

Good persuasive writing is clear, compelling, well-supported, opinionated without relying solely on opinion, and lively—since readers who drift off to sleep are rarely convinced of anything. Writers who know an issue inside and out and who can anticipate and field opposing viewpoints without becoming rattled or cranky stand the best chance to succeed.

Writer restates the point of the argument but makes no attempt to express opinion or compel the audience. Fuzzy thinking dominates. Weak, questionable evidence. Reader resists budging. Appeals to feelings. Position weak/unclear/shifting. Easy to refute. Exaggeration in lieu of logic. Ignores/glosses over facts. Repetition in lieu of real strength. Unsure of ground. Giant leaps of faith required. Minimal content. Unsupported statements Some chinks in foundation. Few surprises. Predictable, well-worn arguments. Nudges reader gently. Relies on good will of audience. Overlooks key evidence. Basic position easily inferred. Credible but limited support. Acceptable, knowledge as evidence. Relies on common sense. Fact/opinion sometimes overlap. Non-probing. Holds one position throughout. Mix of rational and muddled thinking. Weak counterpoints exposed. Digs for truth. Propels reader in one direction. Sound reasoning. Clear position. Opinions thoughtfully supported. Credible evidence probing, penetrating. Telling evidence. Avoids exaggeration. Provable statements. Compelling arguments, Fact/opinion distinguished. Conclusions well-grounded. Displays evidence to advantage. Believable. Defensible. Convincing. Tough to refute.

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Journal Checklist

Rating Scale: 1 = never, 2 = rarely, 3 = about half the time,
4 = usually, 5 = always or almost always

Is the journal used regularly?          
Is the writing fluent?          
Is there detail and elaboration?          
Is there variety?          
Is there an attempt to use known conventions to communicate effectively?          
Is there evidence that the Writer is Willing to Take Risks and Try Out New Ideas?          

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Compare/Contrast Essay Checklist

Rating Scale: 1 = very weak, 2 = weak, 3 = okay, 4 = very good, 5 = super

Opening catches reader’s interests.            
Thesis states topics and the main idea.            
Features or subjects are discussed in the same order.            
Order in which features are discussed is logical.            
Specific examples are used to support ideas.            
Wording and ideas are fresh and interesting.            
Compare/contrast clue words are used.            

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Body Paragraph Evaluation Checklist

Use this checklist to evaluate a body paragraph of an essay, but not for an introduction or summary paragraph.

1. Starts with a transition.        
2. First sentence contains appropriate idea from thesis.        
3. Contains one to three explanatory sentences.        
4. Contains two to four sentences about specific details.        
5. Details are colourful, interesting and appropriate.        
6. Ends with a good closing sentence.        
7. Contains no run-ons or sentence fragments.        
8. Is free of errors in agreement.
- Subject/verb - singular or plural
- Pronoun selection correct (singular or plural)
- Pronoun selection correct (subject or object)
9. Is free of punctuation errors.        
10. Is free of spelling errors.        
11. Handwriting is easy to read.        

What are the strongest points of this paragraph?

What should the writer do to make this paragraph better?

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Technical Writing Rubric

Organization/ Format Little evidence of a cohesive plan. Little or no description or detail. Ideas seem scrambled, jumbled, or disconnected. Some evidence of a cohesive plan. Some effort on description and detail. Ideas are developing, but not quite clear. Organizes material in an appropriate manner, but may lack some clarity or consistency. Presents basic information but may have extraneous material. Organizes material in a clear, appropriate, and precise manner.
Content Little evidence of appropriate content. Material is appropriate, but may lack a clear connection to the purpose. Material is clear, relevant, and accurate, but may be lacking conciseness. Material content is clear, relevant, accurate, and concise.
Writing Conventions Little or no evidence of correct writing. Poor conventions seriously limit the paper's readability. Some evidence of correct writing. Poor conventions limit the paper’s readability, but not seriously Minor errors are present, but they do not detract from the readability of the paper. Enhances the readability of the paper.
Research and Interpret Data/ Information Incorrectly interprets data or information with little or no analysis or conclusion. Little or no evidence of research presented. Correctly interprets data or information but provides little or no evidence of analysis or conclusion. Research is limited. Correctly interprets data or information, but analysis or conclusion may not be supported by research. Correct interpretation of data or information. Analysis and conclusion are based on research.
Appropriate Vocabulary Inappropriate vocabulary and use occurs. Some inappropriate vocabulary present, or limited use of appropriate vocabulary. Articulates appropriate vocabulary but is still limited somewhat. Articulates appropriate vocabulary and terms associated with the subject matter.

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Written Report Checklist

Word Choice
* My paragraphs are sound.

* Each of my paragraphs has one main idea.

* I have used correct grammar.

* I have used correct punctuation.

* Periods are at the ends of my sentences.

* I have quotation marks around dialogue.

* My spelling is correct.

* My handwriting is legible.

* My printouts contain no typos.

* My sentences begin in different ways.

* My sentences build upon the ones before it.

* My sentences are different lengths.

* The meaning of each of my sentences is clear.

* My sentences flow and use correct grammar.

* There are no run-ons.

* My sentences are complete.

* My report is sequenced in order.

* My introduction is exciting and inviting.

* My ideas flow and are well connected.

* I have a satisfying conclusion.

* I have capitalized the first word in every sentence.

* I have capitalized people and pet names.

* I have capitalized months and days.

* I have capitalized cities, provinces, and places.

* I have capitalized titles of books, movies, etcetera.

* Every word seems just right.

* I used a lot of describing words (adjectives and adverbs).

* My words paint pictures in the reader’s mind.

* I use strong verbs like darted and exclaimed.

* I used synonyms to add variety.

* I used brainstorming or a story map to create and organize ideas.

* My ideas are written in my own words.

* My report is clear and focused. I stay on target.

* I understand my topic.

* My details give the reader important information.

* My ideas relate to one another.

* I have listened to suggestions from the teacher or peer writers.

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Biography Rubric

Reasoning * Has little to no ideas what reading materials would be useful and can only proceed with a lot of help from group members.

* Makes notes that are irrelevant to the historic person’s character (e.g. “Champlain’s mother avoided eating meat.”)

* Uses adjectives that are inconsistent with the character (e.g., “Samuel de Champlain was unadventurous)

* The examples don’t support the adjectives chosen (e.g., “Champlain was bold because he never saw his wife.”)

* Has a suggestion for one research source but otherwise still needs help from the group in choosing.

* Makes some notes that are relevant to the historic person’s character.

* Uses adjectives that are mostly consistent with the character.

* Some examples support the adjectives chosen.

* Has a good idea of what sources are appropriate and is able to get them on his/her own.

* Most notes are relevant to the historic person’s character.

* Uses adjectives that are all consistent with the character.

* All examples support the adjectives chosen.

* Has a good idea of what books are appropriate and can suggest a variety of other resources for group members.

* All notes are relevant to the historic person’s character.

* Uses adjectives that are all consistent with the character.

* All examples support the adjective chosen and reveal insight into the character (e.g., “Champlain was self-absorbed. He always put exploration and settlement ahead of his personal life. In the end Champlain’s many trips led to a static marriage with Helene Boulle.”)

Communication * Has trouble describing examples used to support the adjectives (e.g., “Champlain was fearless because there was that time that he fought off those Indians in that place and that kind of meant he was serious about the whole thing.”)

* Jot notes don’t make sense or don’t communicate a coherent idea (e.g., “Champlain big, Habitation with Helene.”)

* Often interrupts group discussions with irrelevant statements.

* Makes irrelevant comments that don’t help the group move forward.

* Describes simple examples with little detail.

* Uses very short, basic sentences that don’t vary in structure to describe the example (e.g., “Champlain was strong because he fought Indians. Champlain was brave because he could stand the cold.”)

* Some jot notes communicate a coherent idea (e.g., “Champlain Habitation.”)

* Occasionally interrupts group discussions with irrelevant statements.

* Makes some irrelevant comments.

* Describes some examples with detail and clarity.

* Occasionally varies sentence types to describe the example (e.g., “Champlain, who was not only smart, was also quite strong. While many of the crew couldn’t rig a boom without help, Champlain could do it by himself.”)

* Most jot notes communicate a coherent idea.

* Doesn’t interrupt group discussions and lets people speak.

* Makes only relevant comments.

* Describes all examples with detail and clarity.

* Uses a variety of complete sentence types throughout description of examples.

* All jot notes communicate a coherent idea.

* Facilitates group discussion and encourages others to speak.

* Makes only relevant comments and helps others focus their comments.

Organization of Ideas * Doesn’t keep track of what examples came from what source

* Adjectives aren’t in any order of importance.

* Has some idea of which source the example came from

* The order of some adjectives show a logical building of importance.

* Is able to match sources with examples.

* All adjectives are in order of importance to the character of the historic figure.

* Is able to provide detailed notes on the source for each example.

* All adjectives are in order of importance to the character of the historic figure.

Application of Language Conventions * Uses words that aren’t adjectives to describe the person’s character (e.g., “Champlain was always fighting.”)

* Most adjectives are spelled incorrectly.

* Examples barely make sense due to several major errors or word omissions.

* Requires a lot of help from group members and teachers when spelling simple and common words.

* Uses very simple adjectives (e.g., “Champlain was strong, smart, cool.”)

* Some adjectives are spelled incorrectly.

* Examples make sense but contain numerous errors.

* Requires some help from group members spelling simple and common words.

* Uses some simple adjectives and some that are more complex (e.g., “Champlain was strong and conscientious.”)

* Adjectives are spelled correctly.

* Examples contain a few minor errors.

* Requires no help from group members when it comes to spelling and grammar.

* Uses complex adjectives to accurately describe the person’s character.

* Adjectives are spelled correctly.

* Examples contain no errors or omissions.

* Requires no help from group members and help others with spelling and grammar.

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