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i The classic discussion of this effect is Merrifield, J. (1998). Contested ground: Performance accountability in adult basic education. Cambridge, MA: NCSALL.
ii Advisory Committee on Literacy and Essential Skills. (2005). Towards a fully literate Canada: Achieving national goals through a comprehensive pan-Canadian literacy strategy. Ottawa: Author.
iii Campbell, P. (2006). Student Assessment in Adult Basic Education: A Canadian Snapshot. Edmonton: Author.
iv Praxis. (2007). Mapping the field: A framework for measuring, monitoring and reporting on adult learning in Canada. Halifax: Author.
v Adult Learning Knowledge Centre & Work and Learning Knowledge Centre. (2008). Reaching for the tipping point in adult literacy. Executive summary. Ottawa: Canadian Council on Learning.
vi Canadian Council on Learning. (2008). Reading the future: Planning to meet Canada’s future literacy needs. Ottawa: Author.
viii Faris, R. & Blunt, A. (2006). Report on the CMEC Forum on Adult Literacy. Prince George, BC: Council of Ministers of Education, Canada.
ix Connecting the Dots. (2008). Moving the conversation forward: Adult literacy and Accountability. Proceedings report of the Pan-Canadian Symposium. Montreal: Centre for Literacy of Quebec.
x Crooks, S. et al. (2008). Voices from the field. Montreal: Centre for Literacy of Quebec.
xi See, for example, Millar, R. (2005). Essential skills and lifelong learning: Friend or foe? Literacies 6, 31–33.
xii See Literacy and Basic Skills Section, Workplace Preparation Branch, Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities. (2000). Common assessment in the literacy and basic skills program. Toronto: Author. Available at: www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/training/literacy/assessmt/assess.pdf
xiii There are also a list of work-related skills that are sometimes appended, though these are of a different order than those above.
xiv Common assessment, p.18.
xv For a fuller description of the Ontario system, see Connecting the Dots. (2008). Ontario provincial adult literacy profile: Funders, providers and accountability. Available at: www.literacyandaccountability.ca
xvii Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development. (2007). Adult opportunities action plan. Available at: www.aved.gov.bc.ca/adulteducation/adult_opportunities_plan07.pdf
xviii Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development. (2008). News release, October 1, 2008. Available at: www2.news.gov.bc.ca/news_releases_2005-2009/2008ALMD0065-001496.htm
xx Gadsby, L., Middleton, S. & Whitaker, C. (2007). Monitoring and Assessment in Community-Based Adult Literacy Programs. Vancouver: Literacy BC & 2010Legacies Now.