Test 4: Synonyms-Antonyms, requires specific vocabulary knowledge, in addition to the knowledge of "same" and "opposite."
Test 5: Disarranged Sentences, requires semantic knowledge about flies as well as grammatical knowledge to rearrange the sentences, and information has to be held in working memory while rearranging the sentences.
Test 6: Number Series Completion, emphasizes reasoning with number knowledge in working memory.
Test 7: Analogies, clearly emphasizes culturally determined, semantic knowledge retrieval from the long term memory knowledge base, and also information processing in working memory to detect similarities among the different knowledge domains addressed by the analogies.
Test 8: Information, is heavily loaded with cultural knowledge requirements. It is a probe of the person's knowledge base to discover the extent to which it includes both very familiar and less familiar declarative knowledge available in the United States' culture.
To determine each person's intelligence level, scores for all eight subtests were combined into one total score. The correlation of Alpha total scores with Stanford-Binetmentalagewas.81 (Yerkes,1921,p. 634, table 155).
Based on a person's total Alpha score he was assigned a letter grade of A (superior intelligence), B. C+, C (average intelligence), C-, D, or D- (inferior intelligence). The letter grade became the person's mental category, and was taken as a general indicator of the person's native intelligence. This position was held even though there was a clear relationship of Alpha scores to years of schooling, in which much of the special knowledge, vocabulary and cultural knowledge would have been developed. Correlations of subtest scores with education were found in one special study to range from .51 for Test 3 (Practical Judgment) and years of schooling to .68 for Test 4 and years of schooling, when low literates and non-English speaking were excluded. With low literates included (but not non-English speaking), these correlations ranged from .60 for Test 7 (Analogies) to .74 for Test 2 (Arithmetic) and years of schooling (Yerkes, 1921, p. 781, Table 326). Generally, the correlations of Alpha total test scores with education ranged from .65 if the low literates and non-English speaking were excluded to .75 when the latter were included (Yerkes, 1921, pp. 779-780).
Rather than regarding the Alpha scores as reflecting the results of literacy practices and years of schooling, the test developers considered that the years of schooling completed reflected the results of the native intelligence measured by the Alpha tests (Yerkes, 1921, p.783).
The Beta Test
In determining who should take the Beta test, decisions were made frequently in terms of the number of years of education reported. Generally, those with fewer than four, five, or six years of education were sent to Beta testing. Additionally, men who were non-English speakers, or very poor in speaking English were sent for Beta testing. In some cases, men who tried the Alpha tests but were subsequently judged to be poor readers were readministered the Beta tests. The procedures were not uniform across the testing locations.
As shown in Figure 4, p. 24, like the Alpha test, the Beta test battery for illiterates, low literates or non-English speakers also used a number of subtests. However, unlike the Alpha test in which instructions were given in oral and written language, the Beta subtest instructions were executed in pantomime by the testor and his aides. The examiners marked their responses on paper using pencils, but they were not required to use written language Though reading of number symbols was required in some subtests). As for the Alpha test, the Beta subtest scores were combined into one score, and that score was used to assign letter grades indicating general intelligence.
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