In a minority setting, many families are bilingual. Hofrs comments apply fully here. Also, an adult who functions in two languages doesn't necessarily have the same facility and ability in both languages. If he is more fluent in English, he may engage less often in literacy activities in French. It is very important that the practitioners and parents know these facts. Family literacy programs must therefore anticipate various kinds of intervention, depending on whether the family is endogamous or exogamous. A program cannot address the needs of both groups in the same way and must be adapted accordingly if it is to be successful.
In an article published in the Actes du Colloque pancanadien sur la recherche en education en milieu francophone minoritaire: Bilan et prospectives du Centre de recherche et de développement en "Éducation, Masny (2002) makes recommendations on children's language in child care centres and preschool programs:
It is important, for example, that the children share books that are brought from home. If these books are written in a language other than French, one could set aside a time to tell the story in French. The exchange of cultural referents used in the book provide an opportunity for children to expand their vision of the world and to develop a sense of security about building an identity that is often hybrid in the Francophone minority setting. However, it is important to ensure that the language of communication at the daycare is French and that a privileged position is reserved for texts in French. [Free translation]
According to Masny, it is important to establish a close link between the centre's programming and that of the preschool and the primary school.
The "child" component of a family literacy program can also draw ideas from these sources. The For My Child reports refer to programs where the child is in a child care centre (e.g., Pour les rendre heureux). It could be useful to establish connections between the activities carried out at the child care centre and those offered in the family literacy program.
In Francophone minority communities, it is imperative to offer the child the opportunity to talk and play in French from the earliest age. It is also important that the family take part in activities in French outside the home, to demonstrate that it is possible to learn and have fun together in French.