Family literacy models designed specifically for linguistic and cultural minorities such as immigrants and
refugees all integrate elements such as a critical dimension, autonomy and the social integration of
families. As with any other model of family literacy, a participative and critical approach is recommended,
with a focus on transformation or the capacity of "becoming," to use the expression of Masny and Dufresne
(2007). Models that adopt such an approach are particularly well suited to Francophones in Ontario
because they try to answer the needs of linguistic and cultural minorities.
Three family literacy models that focus on linguistic and cultural minorities deserve a more in-depth
description. These are the American model developed by Kenan, the Parent Empowerment for Family
Literacy (PEFaL), which was implemented in six different countries, and the Manukau Family Literacy
Program (MFLP) from New Zealand. We will also present a handful of other American models.
Because of its influence on many family literacy programs, it is worth presenting the American Kenan
model. Designed in the United States by the National Center for Family Literacy and originally developed
in Kentucky, it includes the following four components:
The Kenan model has been adapted to meet the needs of bilingual and multilingual families mostly from
immigrant and refugee communities. The main elements of the model remain the same, but various other
elements have been added, including helping parents understand the American school system, learning
how to support their child in the system and learning English (McCollumand Russo, 1993).
15 For more information on this model. see the National Center for Family Literacy website: http://www.famlit.org