|Phase of Parenthood
|Effects of Higher Levels
| Important Topics for
|| Higher economic productivity; better personal
health care; lower fertility rates; smaller families.
||Teenage pregnancy and the importance of
education; family planning.
| During pregnancy
and at birth.
| Better prenatal health care; more full-term
births; higher birthweight babies; fewer learning disabilities.
||Prenatal care; drug, alcohol, and tobacco use
effects on fetus; intrauterine learning and cognitive development
| Before going to
|Better health care; better development of
language, cognitive, and literacy skills; better preparation for
||Health; nutrition; safety; mother and infant
interaction; learning from visits to community locations (zoos, stores;
churches; parks; office buildings; mother's education and training programs;
work sites; shopping malls; theaters; schools; etc.); language and literacy
development; playing school and other socialization activities.
| During the school
|Greater success in the primary grades; fewer
placements in special education; better management of homework; better advocacy
for children's education and negotiation of school and children's conflicts;
higher academic achievement by children; more participation in schooling and
better high school completion rates.
|| The nature of schooling; importance of bating
part in school activities; talking with teachers; talking with child about
school, looking at children's schoolwork; reading school notes, schedules, and
report cards; communicating with school personnel; managing homework and
extracurricular activities; motivating children to achieve well, stay in,
complete school; sexual development and behavior of adolescents; peer
influences on children.
Figure 10.1. Phases of parenthood and schooling,
effects of higher levels of mother's education at each phase, and topics for
parenting programs to increase the intergenerational transfer of mother's
education to children.
Preschool Literacy Development
Parent's, and especially mother's education has a
strong influence on whether or not children will have preschool experiences in
literacy activities (scribbling, writing, being read to, reading picture books,
discussing content) Children from more highly educated backgrounds enter school
with higher levels of oral language skills. These children go on to become the
higher level readers in grade school.