- The learner possesses a "human cognitive system"
with an internal knowledge base "inside the head" and
access to an external knowledge base in the world "outside the
head." The learner has a working, or short term memory in which
processing skills such as language are used to move information in
and out of both the internal and external knowledge bases.
- Learning is information processing whereby the learner
actively seeks out information used in constructing a meaningful
interpretation of the world and a knowledge base comprised of these
- A developmental perspective Of literacy emphasizing the
development of oral language from earlier prelinguistic knowledge
and literacy as the amalgam of prelinguistic, linguistic and graphic
- The importance to context in learning new information and
in transferring information already learned to new and different
problems and situations.
The application of this theoretical framework to the instructional
development process suggests creating courses that facilitate learning
on entry into the course, learning throughout the course, and transfer
into the contexts for which the learning is meant to apply. To
accomplish these objectives, courses should be developed that:
- Explain what the students are to learn and why in such a way that
they can always understand both the immediate and long term
usefulness of the course content (facilitates entry into the course;
- Consider the old knowledge that students bring with them to the
course, and build new knowledge on the basis of this old knowledge
(facilitates entry learning)
- Sequence each new lesson so that it builds on prior knowledge
gained in the previous lessons (facilitates in-course learning).
- Integrate instruction in reading, writing, arithmetic, and
problem solving into academic or technical training programs as the
content of the course poses requirements for information processing
using these skills that many potential students may not possess;
avoid decontextualized basic skills "remedial" programs
(facilitates incourse learning; motivates basic skills Learning;
reduces instruction time; develops "learning to learn"
- Derive objectives from careful analysis of the explicit and
tacit knowledge and skill needed in the home, community, academic,
technical training, or employment context for which the learner is
preparing (facilitates transfer).
- Use, to the extent possible, reaming contexts, tasks, materials,
and procedures taken from the future situation in which the reamer
will be functioning (facilitates transfer).