Employee volunteerism in Canadian communities: a growing movement
Employee volunteerism is an emerging movement in Canada. As a clearly defined force, it is much less established here than it is in the United States or Great Britain. Nevertheless, formal initiatives have been launched in a number of Canadian cities to spur the growth of employee volunteerism. In most cases, these initiatives have been spearheaded by the local volunteer centre.
The most popular way to structure an organized approach to promoting the concept of employee volunteerism in a community is through a corporate volunteer council (Cvc). Representatives from member companies sit on the Cvc, and one of them serves as the chairperson. The Volunteer Centre is an active partner, although its precise role vis-à-vis the Cvc may vary according to local circumstances.
In recent years, a number of Canadian cities have established Cvcs: Metropolitan Toronto in 1987, Montreal in 1990, Calgary in 1991, the Waterloo Region of Ontario in 1991, and Hamilton in 1991. These vary in size from ten to sixteen members. At present, Calgary and Montreal have the only Cvcs with a paid staff person (in both cases, hired on a part-time basis and working out of the volunteer centre).
Another model has been adopted in Ottawa-Carleton and Saint John, New Brunswick. In collaboration with the local business sector, a corporate volunteer committee has been established as a standing committee of the volunteer centre. The mandate of these Committees is to promote employee volunteerism in the community and to develop strategies for strengthening collaboration between the voluntary and business sectors. In Saint John, the Committee has close links with the Board of Trade. In Ottawa-Carleton, the members of the committee are drawn from the community at large. They are chosen because of their personal interest in the concept and do not formally represent any company or voluntary organization they are affiliated with.
The Volunteer Centre in St John's, Newfoundland, provides a central link between agencies and businesses in the community by serving as a clearing house for employee volunteers and gifts-in-kind. Volunteer Vancouver runs a Leadership Vancouver program in collaboration with the Vancouver Board of Trade. Under this program, participants tagged as emerging leaders in the community work in teams on community projects to develop their potential.
It should be emphasized, however, that a lot of activity in this field is taking place on a more informal basis. Many volunteer centres are already offering services that include employee volunteers and many companies support volunteerism even though they are not involved with a corporate volunteer council.
A 1986 study by the Conference Board of Canada showed that there was support for the concept of employee volunteerism in many Canadian companies. A fair number of companies have developed programs and policies that encourage the volunteer activities of their employees in the community. However, much of this activity is informal in the sense that it is being done without the assistance of a corporate volunteer council and without the support of a volunteer centre as an intermediary.
Also important to the Canadian scene is the Imagine campaign. Started in 1989 and coordinated by the Canadian Centre for Philanthropy, this nation- wide campaign aims at raising the awareness of businesses and individuals in Canada about their shared responsibility for supporting the voluntary sector through donations of money and time. Employee volunteerism is emerging as one of the thrusts of Imagine's corporate program.
Corporate volunteer councils in Canada
There are now Corporate Volunteer Councils in Metropolitan Toronto, Waterloo Region (which includes Kitchener, Waterloo and Cambridge), Hamilton, Montreal and Calgary. Their current membership is shown below.
The Corporate Volunteer Council of Metropolitan Toronto
The Corporate Volunteer Council of Montreal
Calgary Corporate Volunteer Council
The Waterloo Region Corporate Volunteer Council
Corporate Volunteer Council of Hamilton and District
The international backdrop: Employee volunteering in the United States and Great Britain
On the international scene, the United States and Great Britain lead the way in employee volunteerism both in terms of amount of activity in their communities and the level of national coordination in promoting the concept. From the Canadian perspective, it is useful to have an overview of two successful movements that emerged in different settings.
i) The American Experience
The concept of employee volunteering is well entrenched in the United States. The movement became formalized in the late 1970s and gained great momentum in the early 1980s. Corporate volunteerism (the term usually used in the American literature) is now widespread.
During the Regan era, federal spending in social areas was reduced and corporations were given substantial tax breaks. In return, the administration made it clear that corporations were expected to assume greater responsibility for tackling social problems. Employee volunteerism was actively promoted as an important vehicle for corporations to increase their contribution to the community.
Today, some 1,050 American corporations have formal programs to support employee volunteerism. These companies span virtually all segments of the corporate sector, ranging from industrial giants to small service companies and from multinational head offices to local branch plants. It is interesting to note that in spite of uncertain economic times, there has been a steady increase in the number of companies involved over the past eight years.
Employee volunteer programs take a wide variety of forms in the United States. Nevertheless, there are certain typical elements in the way the concept has evolved there. For example, employer-sanctioned projects are very common. Many team projects are initiated and managed by employees who work together in the community, either for a voluntary organizations or on their own. Education, health and the environment are among the most popular areas for such involvement.
Companies frequently assign middle and senior managers to the boards of voluntary organizations as part of their career development. Many companies also run matching grants programs which give financial support to the organizations for which their employees volunteer.
The development of the concept of the corporate volunteer council (Cvc) in the 1970s gave impetus to the American movement. Coalitions of business corporations, Cvcs provide a link between business and the community. They serve as a forum for member companies to work together on a regular basis at the local level to exchange information on their programs, discuss relevant issues and organize joint initiatives to meet needs in the community. There are now over 70 Cvcs in communities across the United States, ranging in size from 15 to 60 corporate members.
The National Council on Corporate Volunteerism, part of the Points of Light Foundation, helps to link and strengthen local Cvcs and to promote the concept of employee volunteerism at the national level. The Council offers publications, information, technical assistance, direct consultation and training in this area. The Points of Light Foundation recently initiated a program of Awards for Excellence in Corporate Community Service.
ii) The British Experience
Employee volunteerism is a rapidly growing and formalized movement in Great Britain. It forms part of a broader thrust to encourage companies to become actively involved in community investment (a concept which also includes contributions of cash, gifts-in-kind and services). Priority areas are local economic development, inner city renewal, education, and the environment.
The Volunteer Centre Uk began promoting awareness of employee volunteerism in 1984. Over the last ten years, a number of specialized voluntary organizations have been formed in Great Britain to promote the concept of community investment by business.
Perhaps most significant among these is Business in the Community (BitC). This is the coordinating body for a national network that aims to increase the quality and extent of community involvement by business. BitC was established in 1981 by the corporate sector in partnership with the voluntary and public sectors. BitC is currently supported by over 400 major companies, and its members include representatives of Government departments, voluntary agencies and trade unions.
BitC promotes the benefits of employee volunteerism to business. With an emphasis on practical action, it offers assistance and advice to companies and coordinates joint corporate projects at the national and local levels. It coordinates the Uk Award for Corporate Volunteerism, as well as Employees in the Community Action Day, both of which serve to encourage more companies to get staff involved in the community as secondees and volun teers.
Another agency that plays a major role is the Action Resource Centre (Arc). This national agency serves as the leading broker for secondments and other formal placements in voluntary organizations of employees from business and government. It functions on a fee-for-service basis through 12 branch offices.
Summary of good practice in employee volunteering
The following guidelines are reproduced with permission from Making the Most of Employee Community Involvement by Jo Patton, published by The Volunteer Centre Uk in 1992.
For the organization in which the volunteer works
Good practice procedures for managing volunteers in general are largely appropriate to employee volunteers as well. This summary highlights those areas where you may need to review, adapt or add to your usual procedures.
For the employer
1. Involve senior managers in the program.
2. Ensure that line managers recognize the benefits of employee volunteering to the company and the employees, as well as to the community.
3. Appoint a central co-ordinator of activities, either part-time or full- time. Responsibility for the program must be in someone's job description.
4. Involve employees in decision-making as fully as possible. Activities should be freely undertaken and initiated either wholly by employees or co-operatively with management.
5. Provide regular publicity to keep employees and community groups informed.
6. Provide resources to meet necessary administrative costs.
7. Provide visible, practical support for employees' activities. Provide clear guidelines governing the availability of this support and any limitations on it.
8. Involve partner community organisations as fully as possible in planning projects and in the evaluation of them.
9. Begin modestly.
10.Respect the wishes of any employees who do not want any company involvement in, or publicity about, their voluntary work. A general comment recognising `employees doing unspecified voluntary work' should be included in general publicity about the program.
11. Base communications to employees on the underlying messages:
We want to share with you what we are doing
Avoid communications which could be interpreted as:
Employee volunteering (in the abstract) is a good thing.
12. Recognize the contribution of volunteers through profiles in staff magazines, an award scheme or special celebration events. Recogni tion of skills developed during voluntary work can be provided by including mention of such work in appraisals on a voluntary basis.
13. In new volunteer projects developed by the company in partnership with a community organization, negotiate in advance who will provide and pay for materials, volunteers' expenses, insurance, supervision and training if needed.
14. Apply normal good management practices to projects organized by the company. Provide project leaders with line management support and draw up clear job specifications for volunteer tasks where appropriate.
Creating a company profile
The following is based on a checklist developed by Shirley Kennedy Keller, who was a major figure in the employee volunteerism movement in the United States. It is reproduced with the permission of the author, with minor revisions to adapt it to the Canadian situation.
1. Categories of Information
1.1 The Company's Past and Future
·Past giving areas or projects
Is there a history? If so, what activities does the company consider to be most significant?
Is the forecast positive?
Is this the right time to introduce an employee volunteer program?
·Policies on community involvement
Is there a basis to introduce a formal employee volunteer program?
·Current programs involving volunteers
Is there a base from which to build?
Note that some forms of employee volunteerism may not necessarily be recognized as such by the company (for exam ple, United Way campaigns and Red Cross Blood donor clinics).
1.2 Company Demographics
·Size of company number of employees
What is the universe of potential volunteers?
·Geographic location of facilities
Does the company have more than one facility in the area? How close are they to your workplace(s)?
Has the company already established priority areas for community involvement (for example, health, education or seniors)?
·Hours of operation
Does the company have shifts, flex-time or seasonal employees? Will this affect the level of encouragement for employee volunteerism and the types of support mechanisms and programs that could be established?
·Unions or employee associations
Are there existing structures which are important to involve when planning and administering an employee volunteer program? Is the relationship between the union /employee association and management positive?
1.3 Employee Demographics
Do most employees fall into a specific or several specific age ranges? Are there opportunities which might particularly appeal to these potential volunteers?
·Type of jobs
What professional categories do the employees tend to be in? What are the volunteer jobs which have tended to `sell' best to employees with these types of jobs?
What is the proportion of male to female employees? What kinds of volunteer opportunities might appeal to these employees?
·Geographic spread of employees' homes
Will this affect the types of volunteering you propose to them?
·Current involvement as volunteers
Are employees already involved as community volunteers? What are the most popular types of volunteer activity?
1.4 Decision-Makers Formal and Informal
What impact will their support have on an employee volun teer program? Do you have access to each of them?
1.5 Communications Vehicles for Recruitment
What are the existing vehicles for internal communication that you may be able to use to recruit volunteers? Examples include newslet ters, in-house publications and employee clubs.
2. Sources of Information
2.2 The Company Itself
2.3 The Municipal Library
Consult your municipal library for directories of companies in your community, as well as information on specific companies that may have appeared in a newspaper or magazine serving your community.
The corporate volunteer fair: what, why and how
The following is an abridged version of a chapter from the Guide to Building a Corporate Volunteer Program, by the Corporate Volunteer Council of Metropolitan Toronto and the Volunteer Centre of Metro Toronto. Reproduced with permission.
The Volunteer Fair is the vehicle that corporations use most frequently to introduce and maintain interest in their volunteer programs. The Fair provides, in a relaxed, fun environment, an opportunity for employees to learn face-to-face about volunteer options and services in the community. As with any worthwhile endeavour, the Fair's value can be considerably enhanced when it is planned with care and enthusiasm.
What is a Volunteer Information Fair?
An information fair is an event that gives community organizations an opportunity to recruit new volunteers and to explain their services and programs to the general public. Each agency or organization has the use of a display booth or table for the presentation of printed, visual, and audio-visual information.
Generally held in a location which attracts a large number of people (for example, the lobby, cafeteria or training room), an information fair may include any activity (such as a raffle or free lunch) designed to capture the attention of casual observers.
Host Company: the company which has undertaken to host and coordinate the information fair. All communication and planning are channelled through the host company.
Booths/Table Displays: the presentations put together by the participating agencies or organizations and placed in the display booths or on tables provided by the host company. Displays may include audio-visual presentations, pamphlets, posters and photographs placed on the tables or attached to the backdrops of the display booth or table.
Site Co-ordinator: the corporate representative responsible for the location of the fair site.
Promotion: any activity undertaken by the host company to advertise the fair and to encourage employee participation. Promotion could include a personal invitation from the President of the company, flyers, cafeteria tent cards, posters or balloons distributed by clowns at the fair.
Why Have an Information Fair?
A decision to host an information fair in your company will be richly rewarded. The long list of benefits that result from an information fair more than justifies the time and energy involved.
The main benefits include:
Who's in Charge?
An information fair may be organized and hosted by a central coordinating agency in the community, such as a Volunteer Centre or the United Way. Alternatively, planning may be spearheaded by a company.
A coordinating agency is well suited to the task, provided that it is familiar with community organizations and their needs and has the contacts necessary to undertake planning.
Responsibilities and Obligations of the Host Company
The first and most important responsibility is to give everyone enough time to plan! A minimum of three months is recommended.
As the host company, you are responsible for the following:
i) Site Co-ordinator
A staff member should be assigned the task of planning and organizing the fair in cooperation with the Volunteer Centre or a central coordinating agency in the community. The co-ordinator's responsibilities include:
ii) Employee Volunteers
Employee volunteers provide the grease to help the host company and site co- ordinator engineer the information fair. The volunteers report to the site co- ordinator.
The budget required to host an information fair is not significant, but there are a number of essential costs which cannot be avoided (a minimum of about $500). While you should maintain a firm grip on expenditures, keep in mind that the fair should be professional in both its promotion and presentation.
Costs may include:
It is difficult to give an estimate of the total costs involved in an information fair. Expenses depend on the size of the fair, the amount of promotion required and the cost of materials for the display area.
Promotional Activities and Material
Promotional activities and material are designed to provide employees with information about the fair and to generate interest. Remember to include the date, place, and purpose of the fair. Be imaginative.
Draw up a list of activities and the material required. Establish a time schedule. You won't want to fall behind on your planning and risk disappoint ment. The printing of special T-shirts or banners, for example, may require several weeks.
Promotional activities might include:
Encourage employees to promote the fair within their own department. Word-of-mouth reminders at meetings and a few lines in a newsletter can swell the number of employees attending the fair.
An opening ceremony will mark the occasion with pomp and celebration. Your opening ceremony should make everyone feel proud and excited about the fair.
Invite a special guest or two, such as the President or a Senior Executive from the sponsoring company. Encourage short, concise speeches. Have an activity such as a ribbon-cutting or the release of balloons as the focal point of the ceremony. Your objective is to officially open the fair, to thank participants and volunteers and to celebrate `people helping people' in the community.
The Corporate Volunteer Fair: a planning checklist
This is the checklist used by the Corporate Volunteer Council of Calgary to keep all the loose ends under control when organizing a corporate volunteer fair.
1 Resources on Employee Volunteerism
Audet, Beverley A and Janet Rostami. Partnership Strategies for Community Investment: Finding of National Consultations. Ottawa: Institute of Donations and Public Affairs Research, Conference Board of Canada, 1993. 80 pp.
This publication focuses on partnerships across the corporate, voluntary and public sectors as a strategy for social change and community development. After examining the definition and scope of the partnership concept, the report outlines the barriers to partnerships and the elements that are critical to success. It also explores key issues in partnerships and offers suggestions for dealing with these. One appendix provides examples of partnerships in various areas.
Although this publication is not about employee volunteerism as such, it is a useful resource for anyone wanting to get a better understanding of the broader context of community investment.
Board of Trade of Metropolitan Toronto. Corporate Involvement in Volun teerism in the Metro Toronto Area. Toronto: 1985. 30 pp.
This report looks at the findings of a survey of companies in Metropolitan Toronto to assess corporate involvement in employee volunteerism in human services. Selected corporate profiles offer examples of various ways companies can support employee volun teerism. The study concludes that employee volunteerism offers substantial benefits to the company and its employees, as well as to the community.
Corporate Volunteer Council of Metropolitan Toronto and the Volun teer Centre of Metro Toronto. Guide to Building a Corporate Volunteer Program. Toronto: 1990. 54 pp.
Aimed at the corporate sector, this guide identifies the benefits of employee volunteerism and examines key elements of successful programs to promote employee volunteerism. In essence, it is a `how- to' book for companies interested in developing, managing, and evaluating an employee volunteer program. It gives examples of material that show what selected Canadian corporations have done in the area of employee volunteerism. One chapter gives detailed advice on how to organize a corporate volunteer fair.
Decima Research. Charitable giving in the corporate sector in Nation- Wide Attitude Study on Philanthropy. Toronto: October, 1987. pp 28- 36).
Chapter V of this report on the findings of a survey on Canadians' attitudes to philanthropy focuses on the importance that we place on the public image of a company and our views on corporate social responsibility.
Graff, Linda. Volunteer for the Health of It. Etobicoke: Volunteer Ontario, 1991. 46 pp.
This report focuses on the significance of volunteer work in improving volunteers' mental and physical health. Although the study does not deal specifically with employee volunteerism, it does support the view that employee volunteering helps improve the morale and work skills of employees.
Hart, Kenneth D. Employee Volunteerism: Employer Practices and Policies. Ottawa: The Conference Board of Canada, 1986. 17 pp.
This report analyzes the results of a study involving some 1,000 executives. It documents the approaches adopted by Canadian companies in support of voluntary activities by their employees, and examines the opportunities and challenges that employee volunteer ism offers the corporate sector.
It should be noted that this study is not restricted to volunteering that benefits the community or society as a whole. It also gathered information on employer support for work done on behalf of a Chamber of Commerce, a business or trade association, or a profes sional association. (These activities ranked very high as types of activities that employers encouraged).
MacKenzie Group International. Community Relations Practices in Canadian Corporations, 1993. Toronto: 1993. 48 pp.
This is an in-depth analysis of corporate activity in community relations, based on the responses of 258 private and public corpora tions. The study examines the degree of importance that companies of various types and sizes give to community relations, the approaches they take and the success of their strategies, and their level of satisfaction with the benefits they perceive.
Magor, Ken. Spread the Spirit in Exchange, July, 1993. pp 24-27, 37-40.
Aimed at corporations, this article examines the contribution that employee volunteer programs make to the community and explains the role that a corporate volunteer council can play. It also looks at various ways companies can promote volunteering by employees, using examples from Ontario's Waterloo Region.
Market Vision Research. The Market Vision 2000 Study: A Nation-wide Study of Consumers' Attitudes Towards Business. Toronto: 1993.
This document presents the key findings of a survey of the attitudes of Canadians towards business and its social responsibility to the community.
McLelland, Phoebe. Corporate Volunteer Recognition Campaign in The Journal of Volunteer Administration. Summer, 1993. pp 22-25.
This article describes an innovative campaign undertaken by Ottawa-Carleton's Corporate Volunteer Committee to encourage employers to recognize the volunteer efforts of their employees.
Pecore, Gina. Project Connect: Bringing Corporate and Volunteer Resources Together. St John's, Newfoundland: The Volunteer Centre of the Community Services Council, 1992. 68 pp.
This is the report of a study on the status of corporate volunteerism in St John's and Mount Pearl. Based on a sample of 60 businesses and 150 community agencies, this study examines the needs, attitudes and concerns of both the corporate and the voluntary sector. It also offers recommendations on how to strengthen the links between these two sectors through employee volunteerism as well as other kinds of corporate support. The appendices include copies of the interview questionnaires and their covering letters.
Rostami, Janet. Corporate Community Investment in Canada 1992. Institute of Donations and Public Affairs Research, Conference Board of Canada, 1993.
This report is based on the results of a survey to which 184 compa nies responded. The survey gathered information on donations, gifts- in-kind, and employee volunteerism.
The Saint John Volunteer Centre. Bridge the Gap: A Corporate Volunteer Program Study. Saint John, New Brunswick: 1990. 52 pp.
This is the report of a survey aimed at testing the receptiveness of the corporate and voluntary sectors in Saint John to the prospect of a corporate volunteer program run by the Volunteer Centre. Based on interviews with 150 businesses and 50 community agencies, the study concluded that the community was `ready' for such a program. It offers recommendations on how the Volunteer Centre should develop and organize its corporate services. Copies of the questionnaires and their covering letters are appended.
The Saint John Volunteer Centre. Bridge the Gap: Follow-up Study. Saint John, New Brunswick: 1991. 16 pp.
This is a report on the second phase of the Saint John study (see above). Having determined that there was potential for the innova tive corporate involvement in the services offered by the Volunteer Centre, this follow-up study looked at the respective needs of community agencies and businesses in the development of a new corporate services program. Copies of the questionnaires sent to business and community agencies are appended.
Keller, Shirley Kennedy. Corporate Volunteerism: A Different Approach, A Greater Return. Information packages prepared for workshops sponsored by the Corporate Volunteer Council of Calgary in March of 1993.
Two kits, one geared for corporations and the other for voluntary organizations, provide information on employee volunteer programs and other forms of corporate support to community organizations.
Based on information culled from a variety of Canadian and American sources, these kits offer a concise overview of the impor tance of employee volunteerism and present a variety of ways in which employers can support volunteerism.
Voluntary Action Centre of Hamilton and District. Volunteer for a Greater Hamilton: Workplace Recruitment. Hamilton: 1988. 28 pp.
This is the final report of a one-year pilot project in workplace recruitment. The study concluded that two things were urgently needed to make volunteer recruitment from the workplace a real success: i) public education to dispel the many misconceptions about the role of the voluntary sector and myths about volunteer work; and ii) market research to discover the needs and motivations of people who are not volunteers. The report also emphasizes the fact that, while volunteer work is unpaid, it takes resources to recruit, place, train and manage volunteers.
Allen, Kenn, Shirley Keller and Cynthia Vizza. Building Partnerships with Business: A Guide for Nonprofits. Arlington, Va: Volunteer The National Centre, 1987. 27 pp.
Intended for the voluntary sector, this guide focuses on strategies for recruiting and retaining volunteers from the workplace. It examines why American corporations sponsor volunteer programs for their employees and how these programs work. It also offers advice to nonprofits on how to compete successfully for employee-volunteers.
Haran, Loyce, Siobhan Kenney and Mark Vermilion. Contract Volunteer Services: A Model for A Successful Partnership in Leadership, January to March, 1993, pp 28-30.
This article presents the advantages of a model employee volunteer program in which the company contracts with local volunteer centre to develop and manage its program.
Klug, Jeanne. Reaching the Corporate World Through Effective Corporate Volunteer Council Partnerships in The Journal of Volunteer Administration, Spring, 1993. pp 29-31.
This succinct article describes the role of Corporate Volunteer Councils as the concept has evolved in the United States. It also addresses the relationship between Cvcs and volunteer centres.
Vizza, Cynthia, Kenn Allen and Shirley Keller. A New Competitive Edge: Volunteers from the Workplace. Arlington, Va: Volunteer The National Centre, 1986. 245 pp.
This well written book is based on extensive research involving companies, unions, and volunteer centres and other voluntary organizations across the United States. It focuses on the activities of twenty companies and five labour unions that are actively involved in employee volunteerism. These profiles give useful insights on how employee volunteerism programs function in specific corporate cultures.
Conference Board. Corporate Volunteer Programs: Benefits to Business. New York: 1993. 35 pp.
This report is based on the results of a recent study of employee volunteerism in American corporations. It examines in detail the strategic applications and benefits of volunteer programs and policies. Although it focuses on the American situation, the report will be of interest to anyone trying to understand the corporate perspective on employee volunteerism. It is also an excellent source for ideas on how to sell the concept to business.
What emerges clearly from the study is that many American corporations view employee volunteerism as a business strategy related directly to the `bottom line'. This is evidenced by the fact that levels of employee volunteerism have not declined in the recession of the early 1990s.
Corporate Volunteer Coordinators Committee of New York City. Building a Corporate Volunteer Program. New York: 1984. 30 pp.
Written from the corporate perspective, this resource binder contains information on how to establish a successful employee volunteer program. It addresses a variety of issues, including recruitment methods and how to motivate employee-volunteers.
Corporate Volunteerism Council of Minneapolis-St Paul Metro Area. Volunteerism Corporate Style, 3rd edition. Minneapolis, Minn: 1987. 87 pp.
Intended for the corporate reader, this guide provides detailed information and advice on promoting volunteerism in the workplace, establishing and managing a volunteer program, and working with nonprofits. Examples drawn from a wide variety of American companies show the variety of possibilities for organizing an employee volunteerism program and supporting employee-volunteers.
National Council on Corporate Volunteerism. Corporate Volunteer Council Survey Findings. Washington, DC: Points of Light Foundation, 1992. 31 pp.
This report present the results of a comprehensive survey of the 59 corporate volunteer councils in the United States. The survey gathered information on the successes, strengths and challenges of the corporate volunteer councils, as well as on their visions for the future and the support needed for future growth. The focus was on cooperation among corporations and joint projects with long-term goals for social change.
Points of Light Foundation. Five Words You Never Thought You Would Hear From a Charity Organization. Washington, DC: 1992. 18 pp.
Targeting the corporate sector, this booklet promotes the concept of employee community service. Using text and photos, it profiles the `corporate activism' of five major companies. It also briefly describes the role of corporate volunteer councils, volunteer centres and the Foundation itself in promoting employee volunteerism in the United States.
Points of Light Foundation. Developing a Corporate Volunteer Program: Guidelines for Success. Washington, DC: 1993. 46 pp.
This is a how-to guide for managers of corporate volunteer programs. It is designed to show companies how to make community service and volunteering an integral part of their business operations. It addresses such topics as the benefits of employee volunteerism, corporate policies to support volunteerism, and evaluations of employee volunteer programs.
Volunteer The National Centre. Evaluating Corporate Volunteer Programs. Arlington, Va: 1988. 32 pp.
This guide offers detailed information and practical advice on how to evaluate an employee volunteer program. Sample questionnaires are included.
Volunteer The National Centre. Developing and Strengthening a Corporate Volunteer Council, 2nd edition. Arlington, Va: 1986. 38 pp.
This resource provides detailed information on how to develop or expand a corporate volunteer council. Included are sample by-laws, mission statements, agendas for meetings, letters of recruitment, membership guidelines and surveys.
Paton, Jo. Making the Most of Employee Community Involvement. Berkhamsted, England: The Volunteer Centre Uk, 1992. 81 pp.
Aimed at managers of volunteers, this well written handbook offers useful insights into what motivates companies to become involved in employee volunteerism. It also has a wealth of information on how voluntary organization can attract and manage employee-volunteers. The non-British reader will also get a good sense of the employee volunteerism movement as it has evolved in Great Britain.
Christie, Ian, Michael Carley, and Michael Fogarty. Profitable Partnerships: A Report on Business Investment in the Community. London: Policy Studies Institute, 1991. 175 pp.
This report is based on the results of a major research project. It examines the contribution of British business to the community and discusses the benefits that companies have gained from initiatives in community investment of all kinds (donations, gifts-in-kind and employee volunteerism). The primary focus is on major joint ventures involving the private, voluntary and public sectors. A large portion of the report is devoted to case studies of three cities that have taken successful initiatives to develop their inner-city areas. An appendix outlines the roles of the various agencies and networks that have been established to support employee volunteerism.
Business in the Community. Employee Volunteering: Lessons from America. London, England: 1992. 11 pp.
This booklet is the summary report of a British study team that toured the United States to gather information on employee volunteerism. It provides a brief overview of the American scene and assesses the feasibility of adopting specific American approaches in the British context.
The Volunteer Centre Uk. Understanding Employee Volunteering. London, England: Business in the Community, 1992. 23 pp.
Intended for business, this information package gives information on how companies can benefit from employee volunteerism and how they can develop appropriate programs. The activities of ten British companies are highlighted.
2. Popular Books on Management for the Corporate Sector
The following are well known books on management, leadership and organizational effectiveness. They are geared at the corporate sector. Although they do not specifically refer to employee volunteerism, the philosophy of management that they advocate is entirely consistent with the rationale behind employer support for volunteer activities. These works can thus be used as a reference point for convincing companies of the benefits of employee volunteerism.
Covey, Stephen R. Principle-Centred Leadership. New York: Summit Books, 1990.
See in particular Chapters 25, Principles of Total Quality and 26, Total Quality Leadership
Drucker, Peter F. The Frontiers of Management. New York: Harper and Row, 1986.
See Part IV, Social Needs and Business Opportunities
Naisbitt, John and Patricia Aburdene. Re-inventing the Corporation. New York: Warner Books, 1985.
See in particular Chapters 2, Ten Considerations in Re-inventing the Corporation and 3, Re-inventing Work.
Peters, Tom. Thriving on Chaos: Handbook for a Management Revolution. New York: Alfred A Knopf, 1998.
See Section IV, Achieving Flexibility by Empowering People
Peters, Tom and Nancy Austin. A Passion for Excellence: The Leadership Difference. New York: Warner Books, 1986.
See Part IV, People, People, People.
Peters, Tom and Robert H Waterman, jr. In Search of Excellence: Lessons from America's Best-Run Companies. New York: Harper and Row, 1982.
See Chapter 8, Productivity Through People.