In the 1919 revision of the Camp Reader, Spaeth expanded his discussion of the instructional principles of the lessons from three paragraphs to six pages. In these pages, he produced what appear to be the first teacher training materials for adult literacy educators that discussed relationships among the four communication processes of listening, speaking, reading, and writing and he provided an explanation of the phonetic system of reading (phonics) and its relevance to writing. Throughout the book, extensive footnotes further instruct the teacher in the teaching of phonics, and extensive drills are provided on decoding lists of words. In this book, Spaeth showed clearly that he was a proponent of the methods of teaching reading and writing that rely heavily upon the understanding of the written language as a substitution code for the spoken language, and he advised considerable attention to the teaching of the decoding and encoding of the written language through phonics. He also presents teacher training materials for teaching literacy and English as a second language for foreign-speaking students. In these lessons, instruction moves from listening and speaking to reading and writing.
Though he eschewed the analytic method of teaching reading favored by Stewart, Spaeth used the same functional context education approach in the Camp Reader for American Soldiers as used by Stewart in the Country Life Readers and the Soldier’s First Book that she had prepared for teaching soldiers to read in World War I. Spaeth’s Camp Reader for American Soldiers was illustrated with pictures of Army situations and it included much of the vocabulary and concepts used in training in soldiering that the Army expected new recruits to learn, and it provided spiritual and morale building readings as well.
Frank C. Laubach (1884-1970)
According to the New York Times of June 12, 1970, in 1911, the year Cora Wilson Stewart started the Moonlight Schools, Frank C. Laubach received a master’s degree in sociology from Columbia. In 1913, the year that the "each one teach one" slogan was invented for use in Kentucky, Laubach received his doctorate in sociology. In 1914 he was ordained a Congregationist minister and a year later, in 1915, he and his wife left for the Philippines to work as missionaries.
A chronology from the Laubach Literacy library in Syracuse, New York reports that in 1930, "While working as a missionary among the Maranao people of the Philippines, Frank C. Laubach developed a simple method to teach them to learn to read and write in their own language. He also discovered the potential of volunteer tutors, as newly-literate Maranaos offered to teach illiterate family and friends. This one-to-one instructional approach became known as "Each One Teach One." A review of books by Laubach (1947,1960) revealed no citation of the earlier origins of the "each one teach one" slogan in the work of Cora Wilson Stewart. For now, it appears that this slogan that has played a major role in advancing the policy and practice of using volunteers in adult literacy programs may have had two separate birthplaces, first in the hills and hollows of Kentucky, and some fifteen years later in the dense jungles of Mindanao Island in the Philippines.
Like Spaeth, Laubach (1947, 1960) followed the synthetic or alphabetic code method in teaching reading as a second signaling system for listening to speech. In teaching decoding, one of his major innovations for teaching adults was to use picture mnemonics to teach the sight-sound correspondences, such as using a picture of a snake curved to look like an “s” to teach the sound that goes with the graphic letter “s”.
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