In practice, community specificity and autonomy depend upon the extent to which governments devolve authority and resources to programs. All programs are regulated by the documentary procedures and controls of governments and institutions. The space for program autonomy and community specificity is effectively determined by funding formulas or grant requirements, requirements for reporting on student progress or other aspects of program operation, and teacher or tutor qualifications. It is in these various documentary procedures and controls that the real relations between policy rhetoric and programming practices are defined.
Such procedures do not bear only on institutional programs, and self-identified
community-based programs do not avoid them. They are central in defining
the space that any program has to respond to its particular
students, and to shape itself specifically to its community. Of course,
One set of documentary procedures and controls are those that organize student and program evaluation.
There are diverse methods of student evaluation, and they serve diverse
purposes: placement of students, setting learning objectives, assessing
individual learning, and measuring overall program outcomes. Testing
may be oriented to either academic or functional knowledge and skills.
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