The objective of this phase is to create an environment in which much of the information already presented in the first phases is brought together with the intention of highlighting issues, seeking and suggesting solutions.
The content of the case study needs to be directed to the requirements of the particular group. It might be written by the program planners, a team from the workshop group, or it might be taken from material already prepared. Short stories, newspaper and magazine features, films and film strips are also good sources of case study material.
The case study takes place in small groups. Issues are raised; solutions are suggested. The sharing of this information takes place in a large group. This can be done in creative ways using role play, drawings, and panels.
PHASE V: WHERE DO I GO FROM HERE?
This phase involves a reflection period. "What is the most essential thing for me to do?" is the important question. Participants are encouraged to start personal journals. If appropriate, participants might share ideas in small groups. They should leave the workshop with some plan of action. This might take the form of an objective and a task analysis. It might involve a plan for more personal reflection on the topic; selected readings might be recommended; or a group action might be initiated.
PHASE VI: WHAT HAVE I DONE? AM DOING? HOPE TO DO?
After a three/six-month period, participants can either meet again or be contacted by mail. They are asked to reflect on their actions over the past three/six months, to evaluate what they have done, and to make some future plans. Opportunity for sharing should be provided. If the follow-up is done by a meeting, this could take the form of small groups; if by mail, the sharing could take place by means of a newsletter. The development of a network system might also be suggested as a way to keep the process going.
The learning journey continues, hopefully, with a transformed perspective.
CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS
The positive power of reflection is emphasized in this model. Women should be encouraged to explore opportunities for reflection. These might include learning to keep a journal, finding other people with whom they could share reflection, or structuring time for reflection by them selves on a regular basis. This latter might include a scheduled physical activity, such as jogging, walking or swimming, followed by a period of reflection (Boyd, 1980).
The importance of the reflective ability is strongly supported in the literature on experiential learning. Kolb and Fry (1975) point out in their theory that learning is concerned with a four stage cycle which includes four abilities, one of these being reflective observation: The experiential learning model depicts learning as a process of conflict, confrontation, and resolution among four basic adaptive modes or ways of relating to the world: Concrete Experience vs. Abstract Conceptualizing, and I Active Experimentation vs. Reflective Observation. (p.37)
Since there is evidence that learning, change, and growth are best facilitated by an intergrade process that includes all four abilities, reflection should be encouraged. This ability is very often neglected in an action oriented Society because it takes time and is often perceived as an exercise that inhibits progress.
Not only could women learn to value and strengthen the reflective process in their lives, but they could learn to encourage and support the value of reflection in the lives of the people they instruct, guide, or counsel. Reflective learning is the key element in learning from experience (Boyd & False, 1983). According to these authors: